Improved screen materials have been developed to increase the brightness of the picture to suit the particular shape of the auditorium. A screen covered with tiny beads tends to send the light back in the general direction of the projector, and is suitable for use at one end of a long, narrow auditorium. Another type of screen is covered with fine embossed vertical grooves; this tends to distribute the light in a horizontal band across the audience with little or no vertical spread. A real advantage of these highly reflective screens is that they tend to reflect ambient room light away from the viewer as by a mirror, so that the pictures appear almost as bright and clear by day as in a darkened room.
Dr. Frank L. Salimeno was raised and education in Ogden. Graduating from Ogden High School and receiving a Bachelors Degree (B.S.) from Weber State University in 1965. He went on for the Doctor of Optometry Degree (O.D.) from the Pacific University College of Optometry in 1969. After graduation he entered the U.S. Army Medical Service Corps with a rank of Captain and Chief at the Eye Clinic for the US Army Hospital Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. He was awarded the Army Commendation Medal on completion of his service in the US Army. He then entered private practice in 1972. He has practiced optometry in Ogden for 40 years.
Admission to Optometry school is very competitive. Applicants must take the Optometry Admission Test (OAT) and have excellent undergraduate grades to apply. To graduate, candidates must pass all three parts of the National Board of Examiners of Optometry (NBEO). Part 1 NBEO is a two-day written exam. Part 2 is a computer based exam, takes all day and based on clinical studies including the treatment and management of ocular disease. Part three is a practical exam that must be taken in person in North Carolina. Once a candidate has successfully completed all applicable coursework, clinical rotations, passed all parts of NBEO exams, and satisfied all financial obligations (US$225,000), a Doctor of Optometry degree will be conferred.
In Canada, Doctors of Optometry (O.D.) typically complete four years of undergraduate studies followed by four to five years of optometry studies, accredited by the Accreditation Council on Optometric Education. There are two such schools of optometry located in Canada — the University of Waterloo and the Université de Montreal. Canada also recognizes degrees from the twenty US schools.
All photometric concepts are based on the idea of a standard candle, lamps having accurately known candle power being obtainable from the various national standards laboratories. The ratio of the candle power of a source to its area is called the luminance of the source; luminances range from about 2,000 candles per square millimetre at the surface of the Sun down to about 3 × 10−6 candle per square centimetre (3 × 10−6 stilb) for the luminous paint on a watch dial. Ordinary outdoor scenes in daylight have an average luminance of several hundred candles per square foot. The quantity of light flux flowing out from a source is measured in lumens, the lumen being defined as the amount of flux radiated by a small “point” source of one candle power into a cone having a solid angle of one steradian. When light falls upon a surface it produces illumination (i.e., illuminance), the usual measure of illuminance being the foot-candle, which is one lumen falling on each square foot of receiving surface.
The use of polished mirrors for reflecting light has been known for thousands of years, and concave mirrors have long been used to form real images of distant objects. Indeed, Isaac Newton greatly preferred the use of a mirror as a telescope objective to the poor-quality lenses available in his time. Because there is no limit to the possible size of a mirror, all large telescopes today are of this type.
Dr. Fellows's Biography — Dr. Bradley Fellows has been in private practice for 25 years. He received his optometry degree from Pacific University, serving internships at the VA Hospital in Vancouver, Washington and Grace Peck Clinic in Portland, Oregon. Early in his practice he saw patients at the VA Hospital in Salt Lake City and served as part time staff and clinician at the U of U hospital. He served for 10 years on the Utah Optometric Association Board of Directors, serving as the UOA president in 1993. Dr. Fellows received the Young Optometrist of the Year Award in Utah in 1993. He also served on the Utah State Licensing Board of Optometry for 6 years. With his experience and training Dr. Fellows specializes in routine and medical eye care, pediatric vision care, pre and post lasik and cataract care, as well as all types of contact lens fittings and treatment of eye diseases. He loves his work and his patients who have been with him since the beginning. He loves being able to see the grandchildren and great grandchildren of his first patients from 25 years ago.
Optometrists (also known as doctors of optometry in the United States, Canada, or by higher degree in the UK and for any other individuals worldwide holding the O.D. degree)  are health care professionals who provide primary eyecare through comprehensive eye examinations to detect and treat various visual abnormalities and eye diseases. Being a regulated profession, an optometrist's scope of practice may differ depending on the location. Thus, disorders or diseases detected outside the treatment scope of optometry (i.e those requiring certain surgical interventions) are referred out to relevant medical professionals for proper care, more commonly to ophthalmologists who are physicians that specialize in tertiary medical and surgical care of the eye. Optometrists typically work closely together with other eye care professionals such as ophthalmologists and opticians to deliver quality and efficient eyecare to the general public.